Her Majesty the Queen is the first British monarch to celebrate a Platinum Jubilee, 但数百年来,英国王室的庆祝活动一直以阅兵形式进行, 陶瓷纪念品, 特别的硬币和大众的热情. The excitement and pageantry around Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee is well known and preserved in early film and photographs.  But a Golden Jubilee was first celebrated by a British king, 爱德华三世, in the 12th 世纪, 和维多利亚的祖父, 乔治三世, 是在200年前被称赞的吗, 他在位50年,尽管早年不受欢迎, 激进主义愈演愈烈,精神疾病日渐衰弱. 

乔治三世.  1760 - 1820年统治

乔治三世最出名的是这种长期疾病和“失去”美国殖民地. But the pattern and many of the traditions around the monarchy and in terms of royal jubilees began in his reign and the monarch came to be seen popularly as synonymous with Britain.

The first 25 years of 乔治三世’s reign were not seen as a great success. He was perceived as very controlling for what was perceived as interference in political affairs and it was thought he overstepped his role as a constitutional monarch. The king even appointed his former tutor, the Scottish Lord Bute, as prime minister. This was widely criticised and the hapless Lord was seen as a creature of the court. Things did not get much better in the first half of the reign.

尽管如此, 然而, 汉诺威国王最终与爱国主义和英国本质联系在一起. 这也许要从他本人说起. Most scholars now would say he made poor choices initially, 但没有多少人怀疑他的真诚,他们承认他非常认真地履行了自己的职责. 他不是一个挥金如土的人,他是一个热爱家庭的男人,他的形象开始改变.

爱德华三世. 1327 - 1377年统治

1377年1月28日, 亚当•霍顿, 圣大卫的主教, addressed the English parliament in the Painted Chamber at Westminster. 他告诉聚集在一起的上议院和下议院爱德华三世已经统治英格兰超过50年, and thus announced the end of Edward’s ‘jubilee year or year of grace’.

英国政府决定通过一系列公共活动来庆祝爱德华登基60周年. 首先,国王于1376年2月在史密斯菲尔德主持了为期一周的比赛. 其次,1376年4月,他参加了嘉德勋位在温莎城堡举行的会议. 但此后,庆祝活动就偃旗息鼓了. 原定于6月在史密斯菲尔德举行的另一场比赛也被取消了. 爱德华登基60周年剩下的日子被爆炸性的"好议会"所带来的政治影响所主导, 哪一个 lasted from April to July; the sorrow 哪一个 met the death of the king’s first-born son – the Black Prince – on 8 June; and the king’s own failing health.

尽管如此, there were some muted celebrations to mark the day of Edward’s jubilee itself, 是在1377年1月25日. 根据 Anonimalle纪事报, ‘the commons of London made great entertainment and celebration’, 最后在威尔士亲王和其他贵族面前在肯宁顿举行一场表演. 然而, 没有迹象表明王室或其他城镇为纪念这一时刻做了什么. 事实上, one man was conspicuously absent from both the celebrations in London and the parliament 哪一个 opened two days later: the king himself. 爱德华三世 was confined to his quarters at his manor of Havering in Essex, and was too unwell to travel; as Houghton explained, 他被埋没在地下,“处于极大的生命危险之中”. 一个月后,他终于离开了哈维林, 搬到他位于萨里的辛庄园, a chronicler reported that he made the journey with ‘great frailty’. While the cause of Edward’s ill-health is unclear – although it is likely that he suffered from a series of debilitating strokes – he did not recover, 并于1377年6月21日去世, 在64岁的时候.

Although Edward’s infirmity cast a shadow over the last years of his reign, it should not blind us to what he achieved during his fifty years on the throne. 1327年爱德华加冕, the English monarchy had been in the midst of an unprecedented crisis. 他的父亲, 爱德华二世, 引起了不满, 不信任, and anger because of his regime’s harsh and heavy-handed 治疗 of political society; his government’s military failures 再一次st both France and Scotland; and his own scandalous relationship with his favourites, 皮尔斯·加夫斯顿和小休·德斯彭瑟. 这导致爱德华二世被推翻,这是自诺曼征服以来第一次英国国王被推翻. 然而在他统治期间, 爱德华三世 rebuilt the monarchy’s prestige and reputation, 恢复了王室与贵族的关系, 重振了英格兰的军事力量, with English forces triumphing over their French foes at the Battles of Crecy and Poitiers in 1346 and 1356 respectively.

人们对爱德华之死的反应表明,他的臣民对他的成就和长寿表示赞赏. 的记录者, 琼Froissart, remarked that his death was ‘to the deep distress of the whole realm of England, 因为他一直是他们的好国王, and described how his funerary procession was observed by mourning crowds. Other commentators also heaped praise on the departed king; Thomas Walsingham, 圣奥尔本斯的修道士, later wrote that ‘among all the world’s kings and princes, 他[爱德华]曾是一位光荣的国王, 仁慈的, 仁慈的, 和华丽的. 但也许对国王最值得注意的致敬是他陵墓周围的铭文:

‘Here is the glory of the English, the paragon of past kings,

The model of future kings, a 仁慈的 king, the peace of the peoples,


The unconquered leopard, he was a powerful Maccabeus in his wars.

While he lived prosperously, he restored to life his kingdom in probity.

He ruled mightily in arms; now in heaven may he be heavenly king’.


影响他的精神疾病在一定程度上促成了乔治三世的康复. He  was seen sympathetically as a ‘King Lear-like figure’. 和, 在1984年一篇关于乔治三世的文章中 , 普林斯顿大学教授琳达·科利说, “1789年之后, 版画经常把他描绘成圣. 乔治, 约翰·布尔和, 在他1810年精神崩溃之后, 作为一个明智的, Lear-like patriarch and the celestial guardian of his nation.’

As well as increasing personal sympathy for ‘Farmer 乔治’, 君主制成为英国特色的象征,以对抗欧洲大陆上的独裁势力.

1820年,人们对他去世的反应,标志着他在位期间情绪的巨大变化. 大约30,一万人聚集在一起参加葬礼, 尽管过去十年他一直身体不适, it was described as ‘if the paternal roof had fallen in, 让ku体育下载的房间变得荒凉. 英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士的商店都关门了.

乔治三世的纪念碑尽管这样的尊重在现在是可以期待的, 在乔治三世统治的早期,这种情况并没有发生——对他的前几任君主来说也是如此. 自从查理二世, 君主制并非享有完全的声望, 尤其是随着激进政治的发展.

根据科利教授的文章, ‘Ever since the passing of that immediate euphoria 哪一个 greeted the Restoration, no English or British monarch other than perhaps Anne had achieved more than partial or transient popularity; no sovereign at all had been able to act as an unquestioned cynosure for national sentiment.’

So much had changed, though, that when 乔治 celebrated the beginning of his 50th year of kingship on 25 October 1809 – the first Golden Jubilee in 500 years. Lord Palmerston said, ‘Nothing could be better than its effect in London.'

In the course of 乔治三世’s reign, the view of the monarchy had changed. The main national anthem became ‘God save the King’, supplanting Rule Britannia.  国家马车建成了, 它曾在女王陛下的加冕典礼上使用过,也将出现在今年的白金禧庆典游行中. 和 a new focus on the monarch was used to distinguish patriotic British celebrations from those in revolutionary France.

并非所有人都信服, 正如科利教授指出的那样, 弗朗西斯·伯德特爵士(Sir Francis Burdett)在下议院宣称,乔治·伊尔的大赦年庆典是一个“拙劣的把戏”, 将欢乐注入人民的喉咙", in the wake of soaring food prices and other misfortunes[1]

但是全国各地都在举行庆祝活动,这些活动并不总是官方组织的, 以拿破仑为中心. Local authorities and individuals organised and led events nationally. 媒体在鼓励支持方面起了关键作用, although what would today be called liberal elites criticised the celebrations.

乔治三世根据科利教授的说法, 然而, “这次活动的规模之大,是对媒体积极行动的非凡致敬, it would seem to public opinion 哪一个 compelled many local authorities into action.’

与此同时, 与王室活动相关的其他一些熟悉的活动也随之发展起来——建立了繁荣的纪念品贸易, 禧年的善行被鼓励, great crowds gathered to celebrate and sermons were preached.

During his reign, 乔治三世 gradually became more popular in his own right. 但是法国大革命, 以及对法国君主的处决, would serve to cement his position as the father of the nation. These firmly established the British monarchy as the rallying point for patriotism - in contrast to the Revolutionary events in France and Napoleon’s 'adventures' across the Continent.

There were very real invasion scares in the early 1800s and the traditional Anglo-French rivalry came to be seen differently. 1809年他登基50周年的时候, the safety of the state was associated with the safety of the King.

感谢Perry Gauci博士

[1] Professor Linda Colley: The Apotheosis of 乔治三世: Loyalty, 皇室和不列颠民族1760-1820. 页94 - 129 & 现在,第102卷,第1期,1984年2月. 


“数字化正在革新ku体育下载,”他说 克里斯Howgego教授他是阿什莫尔博物馆的馆长 Heberden硬币的房间今年是它的百年庆典.

Along with colleagues from the Museum and the 大学, Howgego教授 is clearly very excited by the discoveries and new information 哪一个 are expected to come from the digitisation of historic currency, currently underway at the Ashmolean and internationally.

把物品放到网上不仅仅是一件好事, 阿什莫尔博物馆的馆长坚持认为, (尽管事实如此). 数字化将改变学术,”他补充道 理查德Ovenden, the head of Oxford’s Galleries, 库 and Museums and the 25th 现任博德利图书管理员.

数字化正在革新ku体育下载...Digitisation makes ‘big data’ research possible in the 人文学科


豪格戈教授说,特别是在金钱方面,这种影响可能是深远的. Not only will it will allow access to currently unseen objects – but more importantly it will also raise new questions and enable new methodologies, throwing a different light on past civilisations and societies, 他解释说.

With international collections and coin finds being put online, it will be possible for researchers to look in new ways at patterns of behaviour in the past and to work with other institutions to gain a much greater understanding of the ancient world. 他说, ‘Digitisation makes ‘big data’ research possible in the 人文学科.’

Although much focus on ancient coins comes from newspaper reports of sums raised, 当ku体育下载被拍卖时, money provides a window into earlier cultures and societies. Howgego教授’s enthusiasm for the subject is palpable.

如果需要的话, 阿什莫尔博物馆的300件,000件历史性的货币收藏品, 有证据证明你不能带走它吗. 里面有来自世界各地的物品, 它们比它们的主人多活了几百年, 如果不是数以千计, 每年的. 由奖牌组成, 银行纸币和硬币(一些可以追溯到公元前600年以前)的收藏包括原始的明代纸币, 还有一些最早铸造的硬币, 还有黄金储备, 埋在牛津郡, 它们的主人再也没有回来认领它们.



阿什莫尔博物馆的300件,000件历史性的货币收藏品 is proof you cannot take it with you. 里面有来自世界各地的物品, 它们比它们的主人多活了几百年, 如果不是数以千计, 每年的

世界各地的加密货币都在下滑, 这让很多人质疑什么是钱, 阿什莫尔团队对他们作为保管者的藏品的重要性是毫无疑问的.

“这是你手中的历史,Howgego教授说, of a coronation medal made for the accession of the boy King, 还有一枚罗马金币,据信是用从耶路撒冷圣殿掠夺来的黄金铸造的.

Clearly proud of the collection and the research taking place in Oxford, Howgego教授透露有一种新的(2,)为阿什莫尔博物馆收购. 这是一个无与伦比的1085金币和银币的Iceni(布迪卡的部落):其中一些很小, 不可思议的硬币, astonishing survivors from late Iron-Age Britain are in 在金钱画廊举行的特别展览, shining two millennia after its owners were dead and buried. 这些只是博物馆在幕后安全的保险库里展出的历史硬币的一小部分.

ku体育下载的阿什莫尔博物馆, 世界上最古老的公共博物馆, is home to one of the world’s leading collections of ancient money. 它是为学者和专家提供的资源, 越来越多的全球, 现在,人们可以在网上看到这些收藏品.

爱德华六世A coronation medal made for the accession of the boy King, 爱德华六世
300年的,000件, 三分之一已经被数字化, 这多亏了牛津志愿者的努力, 说 杰罗姆Mairat博士他预计在未来几年内完成罗马收藏的数字化.  

300年的,000件, 三分之一已经被数字化, 这多亏了牛津志愿者的努力


The Ashmolean’s collection may be worth a fortune but, 说 curator 博士Shailendra Bhandare,它的真正价值是作为过去的记录. 他解释说, 货币是用金属制造的, 石头, 贝壳, cloth and even rice – whatever is of value to the society. 和 the coins and notes tell much about the societies 哪一个 created them, the development of the civilisations and trade – and war.

这是“收藏品中的亮点之一”, 是牛津皇冠, 发生在英国内战期间, 牛津是查理一世的首都. There are only about ten in existence, and two are in the Ashmolean. 它们是在新客栈街的一家造币厂制造的.


‘They were dancing the conga at the British Museum when it was identified,Howgego教授回忆道. The curator who discovered it said it was so surprising that ‘It was like flicking through a pack of cards and finding an 11 of clubs.’


博士Shailendra Bhandare 

硬币本身通常被设计成记录, 而不仅仅是货币价值, 说 Howgego教授 – used by rulers to put their stamp, 毫不夸张地说, 在历史上. 从短命的罗马皇帝的形象, 到诺亚方舟的照片, 硬币已经被用来发表声明——不仅仅是在投标的合法性方面.

罗马帝国钱币收藏计划, 总部设在阿什莫尔, 领导一项国际合作努力,以数字方式保护这一引人注目的国家遗产形式. 目前,它已经在网上放置了超过16000个储藏库,其中包含惊人的800万枚硬币. The Roman coins that turn up today across Europe and Asia reveal the integrated nature of the Roman Empire – and its impact on neighbouring civilisations, 如印度, 在那里ku体育下载了大量的罗马硬币.  

教授安德鲁·梅多斯, a professor of Ancient History and a specialist in Greek coins, 正期待着数字化带来的重大ku体育下载,并正在领导一项有关希腊铸币的重大ku体育下载.  他说, ‘Coinage became a world-wide phenomenon because of the Greeks...ku体育下载将通过硬币来绘制希腊世界的地图[这些硬币在世界各地收藏,现在已经在网上了]...we’ll be looking at where coins come from and approximate figures for 哪一个 places are heavily monetised and 哪一个 are less so....它将使ku体育下载能够理解在货币发明后的前四五个世纪,是什么推动了商业的发展.’




他说, ku体育下载已经知道最早的硬币出现在希腊的吕底亚省,也就是现在的土耳其. 但当时还没有铸币, 他解释说, about facilitating trade and coins were not used by most people.

他拿着一大块金币说,你用这些金币买不到一条面包. “这可能值一个星期的收入.’

它被认为, 他说, coins were created by rulers in order to pay soldiers to fight in wars, rather than to facilitate trade – although they did that as well.

Digitisation of ‘history in your hand’ is set to transform research.

Amplified good: policy support for cancer care in Africa

大卫·克尔, Professor of 癌症 Medicine at the Radcliffe Department of Medicine, 讨论了他的ku体育下载,以及国际合作支持非洲癌症护理的重要性.

我一直在, 还有我, 癌症ku体育下载人员和执业医师,在健康政策支持方面发展出一种副业, 基于"放大的好"的想法. 我看到了对ku体育下载在诊所见到的病人进行个别咨询的巨大重要性, ku体育下载在世界各地的临床实践中进行的ku体育下载进一步放大了这一点.

But the benefits of this are eclipsed by the potential population benefits of delivering health policy plans 哪一个 will have an impact on cancer control for many millions of citizens: the good of an individual consultation is amplified many fold by effective health policy.

My friend Twalib Ngoma and I were Fellows together 35 years ago in Glasgow. 多年前,我参观了他的癌症中心,ku体育下载80% -90%的癌症患者都出现了晚期症状, 4级疾病——远远超出任何医疗系统提供姑息治疗以外的任何东西的能力. When we attended clinic together much more recently in Dar es Salaam, nothing had changed – all the patients that we saw carried massive tumour burdens.

现在, 在撒哈拉以南的非洲 , urgent action is needed to stem a growing crisis in cancer incidence and mortality. 没有干预, 数据估计显示,到2030年,癌症死亡人数将大幅增加,达到每年约100万人. The growing cancer crisis is attributable to external and internal factors, 包括病毒感染, 不断变化的人口统计, 行为改变, 环境因素, 遗传学, 以及薄弱的医疗体系.

在…的主持下 柳叶刀委员会, ku体育下载借鉴了大家公认的领导人的智慧和实践经验, 代表癌症控制的范围, 拥有预防方面的专业知识, 早期检测, 治疗, 为撒哈拉以南非洲国家提供一套清晰实用的政策建议.

在某种程度上, we are cancer lobbyists in that we aim to influence public officials, especially members of legislative bodies and sway public opinion, 但ku体育下载是站在专业知识的立场上这么做的, 有足够的证据和深刻的时效性. ku体育下载已经看到了太多的报道, 太多的单词, 太多的善意, 太多的家庭被拆散, too many excruciatingly painful deaths to feel that we can brook any further delays in taking collective action to accelerate Sub Saharan African cancer control.

加纳的总统, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo and the President of the House of Chiefs, Ogyeahohoo Yaw Gyebi II将主持委员会的成立,该委员会呼吁采取以下行动:


- Equity by expanding Universal 健康 Coverage to reduce out of pocket expenditures for essential therapy for citizens with cancer, with a view to avoiding catastrophic bankruptcies and abandonment of 治疗



- Gap analysis of existing versus optimal services (staff, 设备, infrastructure) will be undertaken as a main component of the NCCP and a realistic investment plan constructed in 5 year cycles

-改善阿片类镇痛药的获取, 不到10%的非洲癌症患者可以使用, 哪一个, 再一次, 政府需要联合起来应对, 生成健康, 正义, 警察及财务组

- 教育 and training will be the mainspring of any cancer plan and has enormous partnership potential – North-South; South-South; public-private; NGO-professional societies-governments

- ku体育下载 and innovation underpins rational delivery of cancer care. African cancer researchers are keen to contribute to global cancer knowledge and to focus the wider research community on African cancer problems

让我再次呼吁政治家们采取行动并敦促他们, 政策制定者, 医疗专业人员, 非政府组织, professional societies and citizens to unite and chart a collective (and individual) response to the increasing burden of cancer in Africa. 现在至关重要的是,要扩大形成卫生系统和卫生政策行动的协作行动的益处, as the prospect of a million deaths every year from cancer looms.

大卫·克尔 是ku体育下载拉德克利夫医学院的癌症医学教授吗. 他也是NHS的顾问医生.

如何利用生物钟的科学来改善ku体育下载的睡眠和健康-罗素福斯特, Professor of Circadian 神经科学 and the Head of Department of Ophthalmology


在他1953年的诗中 ,菲利普•拉金问道:“天是用来干什么的? 除了日子,ku体育下载还能住在哪里?’ He goes on with typical gloomy yet endearing angst: ‘Ah, 解决了这个问题/带来了牧师和医生/穿着长外套/在田野上奔跑.’

Larkin would have done well to include ‘scientist’ along with priest and doctor. 更具体地说, he might have been interested to talk to circadian neuroscientists, 比如罗素·福斯特教授, who has said that the commercialisation of electric light since the 1950s has allowed us to ‘declare war upon the night’ and think that we can ‘do what we want, 在ku体育下载选择的任何时间.

罗素认为,这样做的过程中,“ku体育下载丢弃了生物学中一个重要的部分”。. 最近的一个例子是三星的“夜猫子”电视广告, 哪一个 features a woman jogging through a city in the middle of the night (2.她用一块Galaxy Watch来跟踪自己的进度. The advert encourages viewers to pursue their health and wellness goals on their own schedules – despite the overwhelming objective scientific evidence that this can be extremely harmful.

罗素的新书正是基于他对ku体育下载这个傲慢的全天候社会的深刻见解, 生活的时间, 5月19日由企鹅出版公司出版. 几乎一本手册, 生活的时间 presents the reader with a wealth of information on what scientists have discovered about sleep and biological circadian rhythms. The book is designed to help each of us ‘make an informed and evidence-based decisions about improving our sleep and circadian health to improve our lives.’ 生活的时间 代表着慷慨地分享一生的工作, and demonstrates Russell’s commitment to the public understanding of science.

Russell Foster is perhaps best known for his team’s contribution to the discovery in the late 1990s of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, 眼睛中的一种神经元. 不像眼睛的杆状细胞和锥状细胞, 它们不负责形成图像, 但是对于探测光线, providing information to the brain about the length of day and length of night. The ground-breaking discovery of these cells and their function was a mile石头 in the now exploding field of circadian biology to 哪一个 Russell has dedicated his working life.

光敏视网膜神经节细胞很重要,因为它们有助于确保人体的昼夜节律系统, 哪一个 is organised by a master ‘body clock’ in the brain, is kept in synchronisation with external light and dark. 如果没有这种机制,ku体育下载的节奏就会不同步,导致各种各样的问题. ku体育下载是生物动物,ku体育下载的器官需要在一天的活动阶段准备好进食和加工食物, and during the resting phase to use stored energy to repair tissue, 排除毒素, 抵御感染, 形式的记忆, 产生新的想法.

拉塞尔对昼夜节律的兴趣与他对睡眠的目的和机制的兴趣交织在一起, 所以他陷害了朱尔斯·索恩爵士 Sleep and Circadian 神经科学 Institute at the 大学 of Oxford in 2012. 科学家们在这里ku体育下载了更多关于支配ku体育下载生命时间的远古基本过程的ku体育下载. They are investigating what happens when sleep and circadian rhythms are disrupted, 比如轮班工人, or in those of us who think we can somehow live outside days, 把ku体育下载醒着的时间推到深夜. 不同步会导致压力荷尔蒙增加, 心脏病, 体重异常, 降低免疫力, 癌症风险增加, 还有情感和认知问题. No wonder Russell was motivated to share some of the cutting-edge insights from the scientific community in order to help people make good decisions about how to live healthy lives.

So what are the practical take-home messages of this book? 也许最令人惊讶的是,在睡眠方面没有“万能”的方法. 认为每个人都应该以每晚睡8小时为目标是没有帮助的, 例如, or even that the holy grail is to sleep right through the night without waking up. 你需要的睡眠与你的基因和环境有关,并会随着你的一生而改变. 这本书还介绍了如何确定你自己的“睡眠类型”——你在早上的状态最好吗, 晚上, 或者在之间? Armed with this information you can adapt your behaviour to synchronise your internal clock to external time in the best way for you.

There are specific messages about the best time for various health interventions: stroke medications such as aspirin should be taken before you go to sleep rather than in the morning, because aspirin turns-off the “stickiness” of platelets 哪一个 are made at night; a flu vaccine is better given in the morning because the immune system is upregulated during the daytime. 罗素解释了改善睡眠的行为的科学证据, such as not drinking caffeinated drinks after lunchtime, 睡前不吃大餐,也不讨论潜在的难题.

这本书中的建议并不是由一个来自神圣的学术殿堂的冷漠的专家以说教的方式传达的, 而是一个对知识充满热情并乐于分享的迷人而有趣的人. 学者们习惯于写作, spending long hours documenting the methodology and results of their experiments, 撰写申请书,说服资助机构提供资助,让ku体育下载继续进行. But only a few are motivated or skilled enough to write about the insights of their work for the benefit of ordinary people who want to live their lives to the full.

拉塞尔显然很喜欢深入ku体育下载这个让他着迷了一辈子的话题, and then distilling the findings and making them accessible and relevant. 他在公开演讲方面的丰富经验使他能够深入了解听众的想法, and he has used genuine questions from people attending such events to form the basis of the wide-ranging and sometimes quirky Q&每一章末尾都有一节. This book demonstrates the most practical purpose of the scientific endeavour – to apply the lessons learned in order to improve our everyday lives.

ku体育下载回到菲利普·拉金的话题,谈谈日子的意义, 让罗素来回答吧, whose hope for his book is that it can help us to ‘be healthier, 更有创造性, 做出更好的决策, 从他人的陪伴中获得更多, 用一种更强烈的好奇心和好奇去看待这个世界和它所提供的一切。”.

生活的时间 于2022年5月19日由企鹅出版公司出版.


ku体育下载牵头的病人招募工作正在进行中 DeTACT试验 安全的, 有效的药物组合,以防止青蒿素和耐多药疟疾在非洲的传播.

全球防治疟疾的斗争正处于关键时刻. Overall progress has now stalled and even worsened in some countries in Africa, 世界上627个国家的大部分在哪里,2020年疟疾造成了000人死亡.

最近的ku体育下载证实,卢旺达和乌干达的疟疾日益流行,情况变得严重 P. 恶性疟原虫 疟疾寄生虫对青蒿素具有部分耐药性, 哪一个 are the most important frontline anti-malaria drugs.

No new antimalarial drugs are expected in the near future. 如果耐多药恶性疟疾在东非形成并传播到非洲其他地区, it is soon likely to compromise the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies or ACTs — putting millions of Africans at risk of drug-resistant malaria infection and death.

The WHO has said this 'independent emergence of artemisin在某种程度上ial resistance in the African Region is of great global concern.'

One possible solution — new drug combinations with artemisinins and two other frequently used antimalarial drugs (Triple ACTs or TACTs) — was found in 2020 by the large multi-centre, 多国TRAC2ku体育下载表明,即使在以青蒿素为基础的联合疗法失败的地方也非常有效.

Before TACTs could be widely deployed to control artemisinin-resistance in Africa, 然而, 其功效, safety and tolerability would first need to be confirmed in African populations, 尤其是儿童.

MORU 2022年世界疟疾日.jpgA child suspected to have malaria being screened for recruitment into the DeTACT Trial at the Centre National de Formation et de Recherche en Santé Rurale (CNFRSR), Maferinyah, 几内亚. ©MORU. 摄影师:Mehul Dhorda.

Led by 大学 of Oxford-affiliated researchers based in Bangkok at the Mahidol-Oxford热带医学ku体育下载单位(MORU), the Developing Triple Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (DeTACT) trial is currently studying in eight African and three Asian countries two new TACTs to generate evidence that they are effective first-line malaria 治疗s and support their deployment in Africa to prevent or delay the emergence of artemisinin and multi-drug resistant malaria in Africa.

由英国援助署资助,通过外国机构管理, 联邦和发展办公室(FCDO), DeTACT的目标是雄心勃勃的.

'The emergence of artemisinin resistance in Africa is a serious concern, 它的控制对于避免未来恶性疟疾治疗失败至关重要. TACTs可以对此作出重要贡献, both by delaying antimalarial drug resistance to the existing drugs, and by providing an effective 治疗 for multidrug resistant infections. DeTACT将提供有关TACTs的必要证据, 交付可以部署的产品, and will engage with national and global 政策制定者 and other stakeholders to discuss the potential position of TACTs in the mix of antimalarial drugs,说 罗本Dondorp教授, DeTACT的首席ku体育下载员.

Besides comparing two existing ACTs (artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine) 再一次st two TACTs constituted of one additional drug added to each of these combinations (amodiaquine and piperaquine, 分别), DeTACT is conducting studies to forecast the impact of TACTs on controlling the spread or emergence of multidrug-resistant 恶性疟原虫 malaria leading to its elimination, 并ku体育下载在疟疾流行世界使用TACTs的市场准备情况和伦理考虑.

'The DeTACT Project includes modelling studies that will project the impact and cost-effectiveness of TACTs in preventing the spread of artemisinin resistance, 博士解释说 Chanaki Amaratunga, DeTACT项目协调员.'

'We are also conducting studies with all malaria stakeholders, starting from patients to researchers and 政策制定者, to elucidate the ethical and market aspects of their deployment. 还有临床试验, these studies constitute a comprehensive assessment of the expected advantages and potential barriers to the large scale use of TACTs,阿玛拉通加博士说.

尽管2019冠状病毒病大流行造成了混乱, DeTACT已经招募了700多名患者, and aims to complete the recruitment of close to 4000 patients by early 2023.

的造型, 伦理学和市场定位ku体育下载已经很深入,预计将于2022年底完成.

除了, MORU has signed a memorandum of understanding with Fosun Pharma and Medicines for 疟疾 Venture (MMV) to collaborate with them to develop and pre-qualify fixed-dose combinations of TACTs prior to marketing them across Africa and the malaria endemic world.

'The DeTACT Trial will generate data not only on the efficacy and safety of TACTs but also on the pharmacokinetics of each of the drug components, including in malnourished children – a particularly vulnerable sub-population. 除了, 将会有尖端的分析, 将临床试验数据与全基因组和转录组ku体育下载相结合, to improve our understanding of artemisinin and other antimalarial drug resistance,detact -非洲协调员说 博士Mehul Dhorda.

'We sincerely thank our partners conducting the field trials for maintaining their commitment to completing the trial in a difficult context,多达博士补充道.

DeTACT is the third of three FCDO-supported multi-country, multi-site trials (TRAC and TRAC2) that have characterised artemisinin resistance and tested multi-drug resistant malaria 治疗s in South-East Asia. The work related to pharmacokinetics of antimalarials in malnourished children is supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust.